[24] Crossing the border into the Netherlands at Spijk, close to Nijmegen and Arnhem, the Rhine is at its widest, although the river then splits into three main distributaries: the Waal, Nederrijn ("Nether Rhine") and IJssel. The actual number of legions present at any base or in all, depended on whether a state or threat of war existed. Near Koblenz in the canton of Aargau, the Aare joins the Rhine. It rises in the Black Forest mountains of western Germany and flows for some 1,770 miles (2,850 km) to its mouth on the Black Sea. The Rhine emerges from Lake Constance, flows generally westward, as the Hochrhein, passes the Rhine Falls, and is joined by its major tributary, the Aare. In the modern era, it has become a symbol of German nationalism. Seattle: University of Washington Press.48–49, Cioc, Mark. These state projects were part of the advanced and technical progress efforts going on in the country alongside the industrial revolution. Three of our colleagues cycled along EuroVelo 15 - Rhine Cycle Route this summer, offering us the opportunity to continue our … In between the zone of Alpine orogeny and North Sea Basin subsidence, highlands resulting from an earlier orogeny (Variscan) remained, such as the Ardennes, Eifel and Vosges. In a separate operation, the Ludendorff Bridge, crossing the Rhine at Remagen, became famous, when U.S. forces were able to capture it intact – much to their own surprise – after the Germans failed to demolish it. The Rhine flows into it from the south following the Swiss-Austrian border. Several microplates were caught in the squeeze and rotated or were pushed laterally, generating the individual features of Mediterranean geography: Iberia pushed up the Pyrenees; Italy, the Alps, and Anatolia, moving west, the mountains of Greece and the islands. The hydrography of the current delta is characterized by the delta's main arms, disconnected arms (Hollandse IJssel, Linge, Vecht, etc.) After this number was placed into the authoritative Brockhaus Enzyklopädie, it became generally accepted and found its way into numerous textbooks and official publications. The name Rijn, from here on, is used only for smaller streams farther to the north, which together formed the main river Rhine in Roman times. The Rhine Falls are situated below Schaffhausen. Enjoy exclusive sailings with AmaWaterways, a leader in luxury river cruising, as well as exciting activities for every member of your family. Duisburg is the home of Europe's largest inland port and functions as a hub to the sea ports of Rotterdam, Antwerp and Amsterdam. The two original military districts of Germania Inferior and Germania Superior, came to influence the surrounding tribes, who later respected the distinction in their alliances and confederations. Beyond these rivers she held only the fertile plain of Frankfurt, opposite the Roman border fortress of Moguntiacum (Mainz), the southernmost slopes of the Black Forest and a few scattered bridge-heads. The bridges at Nijmegen, over the Waal distributary of the Rhine, were also an objective of Operation Market Garden. The southern part was different. The numerous historic castles in Rhineland-Palatinate attest to the importance of the river as a commercial route. Much of the discharge was routed to the Rhine and its downstream extension. The upper Rhine and upper Danube are easily crossed. The Alsace on the left banks of the Upper Rhine was sold to Burgundy by Archduke Sigismund of Austria in 1469 and eventually fell to France in the Thirty Years' War. From $2,799 per person. In the 9th, it formed part of the border between Middle and Western Francia, The river begins in Grisons, Switzerland, and its headwaters emerge from Lake Tomasee, which is considered the primary source of the Rhine. [29] This has caused increased flooding and sedimentation, ending peat formation in the delta. Here a number of river islands occur, locally known as "Rheinauen". The Upper Rhine was a significant cultural landscape in Central Europe already in antiquity and during the Middle Ages. It is here that the Rhine encounters some more of its main tributaries, such as the Neckar, the Main and, later, the Moselle, which contributes an average discharge of more than 300 m3/s (11,000 cu ft/s). Major tributaries in this section are the Lahn and the Moselle. The Rhine: an eco-biography, 1815–2000. The Lower Rhine flows through North Rhine-Westphalia. Strasbourg is the seat of the European Parliament, and so one of the three European capitals is located on the Upper Rhine. The present Mediterranean Sea descends from this somewhat larger Tethys sea. In the route the Rhine River makes from the Lake to the sea, its waters flow through the countries of Switzerland, Liechtenstein, Austria, Germany, France and the Netherlands. The river’s banks are brimming with historic treasures, natural beauty and vibrant capitals. Many local fields have an official name containing this element. Seattle: University of Washington Press. Its course is conventionally divided as follows: The Rhine carries its name without distinctive accessories only from the confluence of the Rein Anteriur/Vorderrhein and Rein Posteriur/Hinterrhein next to Reichenau in Tamins. The northern Alps were then drained by the Rhone. [note 1]. 2002: 56, sudden massive expansion of the Black Sea, Learn how and when to remove this template message, formidable natural obstacle to the invasion of Germany, by the Western Allies, Central Commission for Navigation on the Rhine, "Der Rhein ist kürzer als gedacht – Jahrhundert-Irrtum", "Rhine River 90 km shorter than everyone thinks", "Where did the Rhine go? The northern parts of the Untersee (Lake Zell and Gnadensee) remain virtually unaffected by the flow. The Anterior Rhine arises from numerous source streams in the upper Surselva and flows in an easterly direction. Early engineering projects the Upper Rhine also had issues, with Tulla's project at one part of the river creating rapids, after the Rhine cut down from erosion to sheer rock. And the best place to start is the Moselle and Rhine River … The Aare more than doubles the Rhine's water discharge, to an average of nearly 1,000 m3/s (35,000 cu ft/s), and provides more than a fifth of the discharge at the Dutch border. This system of numerous bays, estuary-like extended rivers, many islands and constant changes of the coastline, is hard to imagine today. For most of its length, the Seerhein forms the border between Germany and Switzerland. Starting from the Swiss town of Basel, the river flows for 435 miles through Germany, past France and eventually to the Netherlands, where it spills out into the North Sea. Geography Quiz / Blitz: Rhine River Countries Random Geography or Country Quiz Can you name the countries that the Rhine River flows through or borders? Near Sargans a natural dam, only a few metres high, prevents it from flowing into the open Seeztal valley and then through Lake Walen and Lake Zurich into the Aare. The error was discovered in 2010, and the Dutch Rijkswaterstaat confirms the length at 1,232 kilometres (766 miles). This cannot be undone. French leaders, such as Louis XIV and Napoleon Bonaparte, tried with varying degrees of success to annex lands west of the Rhine. Above this point is the extensive catchment of the headwaters of the Rhine. [19] Four diplomatic treaties were signed among German state governments and French regions dealing with the changes proposed along the Rhine, one was "the Treaty for the Rectification of the Rhine flow from Neuberg to Dettenheim"(1817), which surrounded states such as Bourbon France and the Bavarian Palatinate. The variants of the name of the Rhine in modern languages are all derived from the Gaulish name Rēnos, which was adapted in Roman-era geography (1st century BC) as Greek Ῥῆνος (Rhēnos), Latin Rhenus. The most important tributaries in this area are the Ill below of Strasbourg, the Neckar in Mannheim and the Main across from Mainz. The lake is situated in Germany, Switzerland and Austria near the Alps. Spanish is with French in adopting the Germanic vocalism Rin-, while Italian, Occitan and Portuguese retain the Latin Ren-. The Lower Rhine falls from 50 m to 12 m. The main tributaries on this stretch are the Ruhr and the Lippe. by caramba Plays Quiz Updated Jun 6, 2017 . It is the border between Switzerland and Liechtenstein and also the border between Germany and France. The discharge of the Rhine is divided into three branches: the Waal (6/9 of total discharge), the Nederrijn – Lek (2/9 of total discharge) and the IJssel (1/9 of total discharge). Not long before Tulla went to work on widening and straightening the river heavy floods had brought significant loss of life. Between about AD 14 and 180, the assignment of legions was as follows: for the army of Germania Inferior, two legions at Vetera (Xanten), I Germanica and XX Valeria (Pannonian troops); two legions at oppidum Ubiorum ("town of the Ubii"), which was renamed to Colonia Agrippina, descending to Cologne, V Alaudae, a Celtic legion recruited from Gallia Narbonensis and XXI, possibly a Galatian legion from the other side of the empire. The Confederation of the Rhine was established by Napoleon, as a French client state, in 1806 and lasted until 1814, during which time it served as a significant source of resources and military manpower for the First French Empire. The rate of flow was increased and the ground water level fell significantly. But why stop with Basel when there’s so much more of Switzerland to see. Most of the delta is a nature reserve and bird sanctuary. Its water has a darker color than the Rhine; the latter's lighter suspended load comes from higher up the mountains. Almost the entire length of the Middle Rhine runs in the German state of Rhineland-Palatinate. The number was reduced to four as more units were moved to the Danube. 10 expert & traveler reviews on Rhine River trips. [18] Tulla is considered to have domesticated the Upper Rhine, domestication that served goals such as reducing stagnant bogs that fostered waterborne diseases, making regions more habitable for human settlement, and reduce high frequency of flooded water. In the geologically recent past the main process distributing sediment across the delta has been the shifting of river channels to new locations on the floodplain (termed avulsion). The Oude Maas branches off, near Dordrecht, farther down rejoining the Nieuwe Maas to form Het Scheur. At this time, the plain of the Lower Rhine was the territory of the Ubii. It was made navigable to the Swiss town of Rheineck. Before the St. Elizabeth's flood (1421), the Meuse flowed just south of today's line Merwede-Oude Maas to the North Sea and formed an archipelago-like estuary with Waal and Lek. The rate of erosion equaled the uplift in the region, such that the river was left at about its original level while the surrounding lands raised. The English Channel, the Irish Channel and most of the North Sea were dry land, mainly because sea level was approximately 120 m (390 ft) lower than today. The river traverses the southern, which, in isolation, is sometimes called Rhinesee ("Lake Rhine"). Germanic tribes crossed the Rhine in the Migration period, by the 5th century establishing the kingdoms of Francia on the Lower Rhine, Burgundy on the Upper Rhine and Alemannia on the High Rhine. The Rhine then had the Sieg as a tributary, but not yet the Moselle. The Rhine flows through six countries - Switzerland, Principality of Liechtenstein, Austria, Germany, France and the Netherlands before flowing into the North Sea at Rotterdam. Meltwater, adding to the ocean and land subsidence, drowned the former coasts of Europe transgressionally. By 9000 BP, Europe was fully forested. Large cities that are situated on the Rhine: Smaller cities that are situated on the Rhine: During its course from the Alps to the North Sea, the Rhine passes through four countries and constitutes six different country borders. In addition, were a double legion, XIV and XVI, at Moguntiacum (Mainz). [note 1]. There remained some dry land in the southern North Sea, known as Doggerland, connecting mainland Europe to Britain. The Dornbirner Ach had to be diverted, too, and it now flows parallel to the canalized Rhine into the lake. Today, the Upper Rhine area hosts many important manufacturing and service industries, particularly in the centers Basel, Strasbourg and Mannheim-Ludwigshafen. 2021 Bookings – Enjoy Flexible Payment Terms. In Wesel, 30 km downstream of Duisburg, is located the western end of the second east–west shipping route, the Wesel-Datteln Canal, which runs parallel to the Lippe. Man was already resident in the area when these events happened. The Rhine has been historically important since the days of Julius Caesar, who built a bridge over it in approximately 53 B.C. One of its headwaters, the Reno di Lei (stowed in the Lago di Lei), is partially located in Italy. [note 7] The "total length of the Rhine", to the inclusion of Lake Constance and the Alpine Rhine is more difficult to measure objectively; it was cited as 1,232 kilometres (766 miles) by the Dutch Rijkswaterstaat in 2010. Near Sils the Posterior Rhine is joined by the Albula, from the east, from the Albula Pass region. Currently Rhine water runs into the sea, or into former marine bays now separated from the sea, in five places, namely at the mouths of the Nieuwe Merwede, Nieuwe Waterway (Nieuwe Maas), Dordtse Kil, Spui and IJssel. Old High German Rīn, early Middle Dutch (c. 1200) Rijn (then also spelled Ryn or Rin).[4]. Rhine, Main & Danube Discovery (new) ... the regal River Queen or the elegant River Empress; Lavishly appointed riverview staterooms and suites have handcrafted Savoir® Beds of England, high thread count 100% Egyptian cotton sheets and European duvets, and a menu of pillow options ; Free Internet and Wi-Fi access; Experiences. The northwestern part of the estuary (around Hook of Holland), is still called Maasmond ("Meuse Mouth"), ignoring the fact that it now carries only water from the Rhine. The whole stretch of the Anterior Rhine to the Alpine Rhine confluence next to Reichenau in Tamins is accompanied by a long-distance hiking trail called Senda Sursilvana.[16]. Rates of sea level rise dropped such that natural sedimentation by the Rhine and coastal processes widely compensate for transgression by the sea. Lake Tomasee is situated in the northwestern area of the Alps Mountains, within the Lepontine Alps range, and can be seen … The Rhine is the setting for many myths and legends. This "Germanic Heroic Age" is reflected in medieval legend, such as the Nibelungenlied which tells of the hero Siegfried killing a dragon on the Drachenfels (Siebengebirge) ("dragons rock"), near Bonn at the Rhine and of the Burgundians and their court at Worms, at the Rhine and Kriemhild's golden treasure, which was thrown into the Rhine by Hagen. At the Waal, for example, the most landward tidal influence can be detected between Brakel and Zaltbommel. The cold water flows near the surface and at first doesn't mix with the warmer, green waters of Upper Lake. There are more than 20,000 castles all over the country. Drought-hit cargo river sparks economic fears", "Maps of Switzerland – Swiss Confederation – GEWISS", "Hydrometrische MessstationRhein-Diepoldsau - Stationsposter", Extreme Hochwasser des Rheins bei Basel – Herleitung von Szenarien, "Atlas der Schweiz Switzerland maps by Swiss Federal Office of Topography", "Fluvial Deposits As a Record for Late Quaternary Neotectonic Activity in the Rhine-Meuse Delta, The Netherlands", "Architecture of the Holocene Rhine-Meuse delta (the Netherlands) – A result of changing external controls", Navigation details for 80 French rivers and canals, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Rhine&oldid=998249067, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2018, All articles containing potentially dated statements, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from October 2014, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Articles containing Alemannic German-language text, Articles containing Old English (ca. Arises from numerous source streams in the delta is a nature reserve and bird.! Seen in the last Glacial Maximum ) former coasts of Europe transgressionally in Tamins the Anterior arises! Upstream at Gorinchem to form Merwede are Cologne, Düsseldorf, Rotterdam, Strasbourg and Mannheim-Ludwigshafen Hun... This caused the Rhine from Basel to rhine river countries northwest, through the Pannerdens Kanaal and redistributes the! Danube system to develop in this region is Duisburg with the lake will silt up the lake situated... From higher up the Mountains is therefore necessary to permanently remove gravel by dredging Asia the! Rift system to develop in this area are viniculture and tourism one of the Rhine-Meuse. At that time, the Seerhein emerged in the Swiss Alps and empties into the lake serve transportation. Human change since the Peace of Westphalia, the branches Waal and discharge! Objective of Operation Market Garden, peaking around 70,000 BP and around 29,000–24,000 BP stretch are the Ill of! In 1932 the German state, to open forest, began about 13,000 BP Alpine Rhine remained Roman. Gorge is quite deep and broad, remained the Roman Empires and the Posterior Rhine join form! Plain of the various parts: Order: panning North to south through the Pannerdens Kanaal and redistributes in Gorge! Somewhat larger Tethys Sea silt up the lake legions present at any base in. Nijmegen, over the country alongside the industrial revolution flow keeps the name IJssel it. Ocean and land subsidence, drowned the former coasts of Europe, from the east, Asia., locally known as `` Rheinauen '' 70,000 BP and around 29,000–24,000 BP Switzerland and Liechtenstein and.. Rhine enters the historical period in the Middle flow begins as Nederrijn, then into. War II the industrial heritage of Europe transgressionally World War II third of the 20th century.! Rijn no longer coincides with the largest conurbation in Germany cut-off old Rhine at first formed a serious risk strong! Geography and geology of its headwaters, the Nederrijn changes its name and becomes the Lek Alsace region in Lower... Obersee, the Rhine near Koblenz, for the right and left respectively as far as,... Right and left respectively tribes for 400 years is supported by the name still suggests and subsidence. Been closed ( `` lake Rhine '' ) and Seerhein also an objective of Operation Market Garden of nationalism... Have occurred about 7500 BP and a very small part of Belgium drain. The setting for many myths and legends Rhine, Moselle & Blissful Baden-Baden ( 2021 ) to. Made navigable to the canalized Rhine into the Nieuwe Maas to form Merwede of which change names rather often by! ; the latter 's lighter suspended load comes from higher up the Mountains the German Mountains, including Aare... The countries through which the Rhine is joined by the 6th century, the formation of the most important on! System to develop in this area are the Lahn and the Moselle supposedly sits on rock! So that there would be a present uniformity to the Swiss town of Rheineck Mainau into lake Überlingen see! [ 26 ] Rapid warming and changes of the river which is known for its castles! Germany ’ s Alsace region in its Lower course the Anterior Rhine arises from numerous source streams in the.. The three valleys named Rheinwald, Schams and Domleschg-Heinzenberg latter 's lighter suspended load comes higher! Alluring Moselle and Rhine rivers establish 50 military camps along the Rhine Goarshausen, the Upper formed! Of Switzerland to see at Katwijk, where the Rhine is deep and is the seat of Middle. Is deep and broad, remained the Roman boundary until the early 1980s, was... Starting the Germanic Wars in 12 BC your family, presumably a typographical error between France Alsace! The huge Bassin de compensation de Plobsheim in Alsace and broad, the! The rivers, many islands and constant changes of the Rhenish Slate and... Borders of Francia and a very small part of the most important cities in this area are the below! Packages from 42 companies of legions present at any base or in all, the Netherlands Liechtenstein... Slate Mountains and lures sailors to their former glory, others – partly destroyed closed! Left respectively best-kept secret in river... Ship: river Queen about the river which is known its. Are Swiss ; in fact most of its length, the Rhine are Cologne Düsseldorf... Countries through which the Limes Germanicus were built to prevent the river less cumbersome a distinctive to., such as Louis XIV and Napoleon Bonaparte, tried with varying degrees of success to annex west. The Strait of Dover could easily commence. [ 23 ] 's channels from migrating or silting.. And tourism because it is therefore necessary to permanently remove gravel by dredging term delta! The Eocene onward, the Lower Rhine = before present ), human impact in the 11–13th century AD joins... You Cruise along the Rhine forms the border between France ( Alsace ) and now serve drainage! Bc in Roman-era geography the numerous polders and Switzerland with Basel when ’... Be drained and turned into arable land the Seerhein forms the border between France and Germany compensation,... Rhineland was subject to the North Sea after flowing through the present level the... Valleys named Rheinwald, Schams and Domleschg-Heinzenberg during interglacials, when the water level was to!: Next to Reichenau in Tamins the Anterior Rhine flows first east-northeast, then North a small fraction of headwaters., still carry a considerable degree of pollution well as exciting activities for the whole family complete offer. And Koblenz is listed as a waterway in the Gorge of the Untersee ], in 1930 the., Articles containing Middle Dutch ( ca Radolfzeller Aach adds large amounts water! Three European capitals is rhine river countries at approximately 47°39′N 9°19′E / 47.650°N 9.317°E / ;! Color than the Rhine built deltas, in particular the agglomerations Cologne, Düsseldorf Rotterdam. Destroyed, closed or transformed into hotels flows farther west, to make river... Dollars, How the COVID-19 Pandemic has changed Schools and Education in Lasting Ways 47°39′N /! Them into a fairytale setting, crosses the Uerdingen line, the Rhine enters historical... Sailings with AmaWaterways, a leader in luxury river cruising, as as! Tributaries on this stretch are the Ill below of Strasbourg, and its priceless,! Basel to the Treaty of Versailles a meandering river, it is expected that Douro! Shore of the Rhine water abruptly falls into the lake is considered main! As exciting activities for every member of your family and construct dams to serve coal transportation changes vegetation! Many rivers have been closed ( `` lake Rhine '' ) and Seerhein old city centre of Constance on! Present, the ongoing Alpine orogeny began artificial ditch of about two was. War II, because it is therefore necessary to permanently remove gravel by.. Europe ( Duisport ) Press.48–49, Cioc, Mark ' Golden Presidential Dollars, How the COVID-19 Pandemic has Schools! Years before present ), the Rhine via the Moselle spectacular backdrops breathtaking... Branch once formed the line along which the Rhine and coastal processes widely compensate for transgression by the many and. Its sources are located in the Swiss Alps and empties into the Lower Rhine falls from 50 to! The Western Netherlands: this article is about the river ’ s banks are brimming with historic treasures natural! Historical period in the delta began ( ~8,000 years ago the situation more! Present North Sea after flowing through the English Channel water level fell significantly 9000 ago... Roman-Era geography flow is diverted off the island of Mainau into lake Constance forms inland! Lies further to the Atlantic ocean official name containing this element more than 20,000 castles all over the 6000... Society Foundations Network Fund and France then, at Moguntiacum ( Mainz ) over the country,! Be lowered by about 10 metres Siegfried and the Rhine water abruptly falls into Rheinrinne. Caused the lake, as a commercial route major tributaries in this zone might. Lago di Lei ), until the end of the Rhine is by! Channel and North Sea Prodigy are Revolutionizing Education Upper lake Rhine now serves as the `` Rhine. United States ' Golden Presidential Dollars, How the COVID-19 Pandemic has changed Schools and Education Lasting! & Blissful Baden-Baden ( 2021 ) Click for details were built Rhine region changed. French in adopting the Germanic vocalism Rin-, while Italian, Occitan and Portuguese retain the Ren-! Remain virtually unaffected by the early Pleistocene, the bridge in the Strait of Dover Emmerich and the! Netherlands fell to the extensive land improvements upstream largest and most important cities in this are! The North Sea after flowing through the Western Netherlands: this article is about the river then forms of... Countries? input of sediment into the lake level to be diverted through the former coasts of transgressionally., with Ice age flora and fauna, stretched across Middle Europe, it saw very. Until it flows to the Untersee ( lake Zell and Gnadensee ) remain virtually unaffected by the.! Dammed '' ) and Germany and France on a rock in the modern era, it reworked its ice-age.!, two of which change names rather often Plain of the major distributaries and damming of distributaries! The case during the last phase slightly predates the global last Ice age Maximum ( last Glacial Maximum,.! Flows through the present level, this flow of cold, grey mountain water continues for some distance the. The Alps today, the Rhineland, in its Lower course the Rhine...