It is characterized by dreaming and the absence of motor function with the exception of the eye muscles and the diaphragm. Creativity and associative thinking have been thought to require the formation of “associative elements into new combinations, which either meet specified requirements or are in some way useful” (32). Peaks of R-waves were automatically detected by the software and visually examined by trained technicians. Subjects were given this problem as an example of the ways in which the fourth word could be linked to the other three, but were informed that the correct answer could be connected to the other three words in many ways. To ensure similar performance profiles as the full sample, we tested performance differences in this partial sample. Tukey’s honest significant difference (HSD) tests with Bonferroni corrections were used for all post hoc comparisons and η2p is reported for effect size. (4), a 90-min nap with both NREM and REM sleep boosted performance in the Primed condition [F(1,53) = 13.63, P = 0.001, ηp2 = 0.20] above QW. The neuromodulator profile of REM sleep reveals a powerful boost in acetylcholine, combined with a diminished role of norepinephrine and serotonin (55). Copyright © 2021 National Academy of Sciences. 1). For both the Primed and Repeated conditions, model 2 (sleep + HRV) predicted performance significantly better (73% and 58% of variance explained, respectively) compared with model 1 (sleep only, 46% and 26% of variance explained, respectively). Author contributions: E.A.M. Sleep drunkenness is also a symptom found in hypersomniac patients. Sleep is an essential bodily function that everyone needs. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1112503108 During REM sleep, your eyes move around rapidly in a range of directions, but don't send any visual information to your brain.That doesn't happen during non-REM sleep. In addition, REM sleep shows both greater total ANS activity and higher parasympathetic/vagal activity compared with wake and SWS sleep (25). Autonomic activity during human sleep as a function of time and sleep stage, A Manual of Standardized Terminology, Techniques and Scoring System for Sleep Stages of Human Subjects, Natl Inst Neurological Diseases and Blindness. Specifically, the standard practice is to bin minutes of continuous sleep in each respective sleep stage (37, 68). Sleep and motor learning: Is there room for consolidation? Note that, for clarity, we only show a partial representation of the central autonomic network in the current figure. Alcohol is a central nervous system depressant that causes brain activity to slow down. Image credit: Acacia Dishman/Medical College of Wisconsin. Incorrectly detected R-peaks were manually edited. The autonomic nervous system (ANS) shows strong variation across sleep stages. We used regression analyses to measure the amount of variance accounted for in postnap performance improvement by sleep alone (model 1) and sleep + HF HRV during sleep (model 2). Because this study is, to our knowledge, the first of its kind to examine the effect of HRV during sleep on memory consolidation, we chose to use these methods to estimate HRV. Electrocardiogram (ECG) data were acquired at a 256-Hz sampling rate using a modified Lead II Einthoven configuration. Alcohol has sedative effects that can induce feelings of relaxation and sleepiness , but the consumption of alcohol – especially in excess – has been linked to poor sleep quality and duration. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. The gender, age, residential background, body mass index (BMI), perceived family economy and perceived study burden were obtained from a total of 4747 … We did not find a relationship between ANS activity during wake and any of the memory conditions, or with ANS activity during sleep and the Novel condition, suggesting a specific effect of ANS activity with sleep-related consolidation and not with a general improvement of creative ability. REM sleep showed the highest total power, which was significantly greater than SWS (P < 0.001). At 5:00 PM, subjects returned to the laboratory and were tested on 30 RAT problems with a time limit of 40 min. In the Primed condition, a RAT problem was only included in that condition if the corresponding analogy was answered correctly. CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing can improve the effectiveness of spermatogonial stem cell transplantation in mice and livestock, a study finds. Acetylcholine allows for induction and maintenance of long-term potentiation (60, 61), which is considered a possible mechanism of synaptic plasticity in implicit learning (62). Next, we used a MANOVA on group (Nap and QW) and performance (proportion correct at PM) in Novel, Primed, and Repeated conditions, again controlling for baseline performance. In the Novel condition, neither problems nor answers were seen before test. Due to the large amount of sleep transitions present in a daytime nap, this approach limits the total amount of data available for the regression analyses. This allows us to dream quietly and safely throughout the night. This highly associative nature of REM sleep is likely supported by related increases in plasticity-related neuromodulators during REM. At 5:00 PM, subjects returned to the laboratory and were tested on 30 RAT problems with a time limit of 40 min. Although the evidence is still limited, a growing body of research suggests music may have beneficial effects for diseases such as Parkinson’s. Image credit: Shutterstock/greenbutterfly. This question is for testing whether or not you are a human visitor and to prevent automated spam submissions. We used a MANOVA to compare performance (proportion correct at test) between Nap and QW groups in all three RAT conditions: Novel, Primed, and Repeated. For the regression analyses, only those subjects who were represented on all five variables (SWS minutes, REM minutes, number of sleep spindles, and HF HRV during SWS and REM) were entered into the models (n = 17). Prior studies have established that parasympathetic/vagal activity is associated with the high-frequency component of HRV [HF HRV; 0.15–0.40 Hz (23)]. In the current study, we repeated this experimental design to investigate the relative contributions of sleep and HRV during sleep to these memory benefits. PSG monitors many body functions including brain (EEG), eye movements (EOG), muscle activity or skeletal muscle activation (EMG) and heart rhythm (ECG) during sleep. Overnight verbal memory retention correlates with the number of sleep spindles, Sleep spindle-related activity in the human EEG and its relation to general cognitive and learning abilities, REM, not incubation, improves creativity by priming associative networks, Sleep-dependent learning: A nap is as good as a night, The role of rapid eye movement sleep for amygdala-related memory processing. Primed associative memories on the RAT were enhanced after a nap that included both NREM and REM sleep, but not after a period of QW. Objective To test the independent and interactive associations of physical activity (PA) and screen time (ST) with self-reported mental health and sleep quality among Chinese college students. Proportion of variance in associative memory improvement accounted for by sleep and autonomic activity during sleep. Given the prior literature on autonomic influences on memory consolidation, and the role of REM sleep for performance improvement on this task, we hypothesized that HF HRV activity during REM sleep would be associated with improved RAT performance in the Primed condition, compared with the Repeated and Novel control conditions. Here, we report data from the parietal EEG channels because prior studies have shown that the greatest spindle power (12–15 Hz) occurs over these sites (71⇓–73). Eighty-one healthy, nonsmoking participants (age = 21.79 ± 3.29 y, 31 females) with no personal history of neurological, psychological, or other chronic illness provided informed consent, which was approved by the University of California, Riverside Human Research Review Board. We hypothesize that central nervous system processes that favor peripheral vagal activity during REM sleep may lead to increases in plasticity that promote associative processing. Prior studies have established that parasympathetic/vagal activity is associated with the high-frequency component of HRV [HF HRV; 0.15–0.40 Hz (23)]. At 1:30 PM, nap subjects (n = 60) took a polysomnographically recorded nap for ∼90 min. 12. Further investigation of the baseline scores shows that mean performance in the Nap group was slightly elevated (full: mean = 0.42, partial: mean = 0.45; Table 1). However, model 2 (sleep and HRV variables) significantly increased the variance explained to 58% [Adj R2 = 0.58, F(5,11) = 5.47, P = 0.009]. As a consequence, on average, of the 10 analogy items used as primes, fewer than two were discarded due to this restriction across the subjects (mean = 8.75, SD = 1.1). If subjects were unable to initiate sleep after 30 min, their nap attempt was discontinued, because they would be unable to attain 90 min of sleep. The first letter of each answer was given. Additionally, we used a MANOVA to compare performance (proportion correct at test and percent improvement) between Nap and QW groups in all three RAT conditions (Novel, Repeated, and Primed), with baseline performance as a covariate. Nofzinger and colleagues' (1997) images show the very reliable pattern of increased brain activity seen during REM sleep but not in an awake state: Increases are consistently seen across the anterior cingulate cortex, down into the subcallosal cortex, back into the basal forebrain, and into the hypothalamus, extending laterally out into the amygdala. Commonly referred to as sleep hyperhidrosis, this type of sleep disorder causes repeated disruption of normal sleep cycles. In other words, without sleep, retention or enhancement of these memories is unlikely. Polysomnography data were collected using Astro-Med Grass Heritage Model 15 amplifiers with Grass GAMMA software. Sleep-deprived EEG tests One of the most common EEG tests is sleep-deprived EEG conducted by neurologists to recognize any abnormal brain wave activity and sleep disorders. In fact, REM sleep has been shown to have the highest levels of cortical acetylcholine compared with active wake, quiet wake, and NREM sleep (56⇓⇓–59). In contrast, decreased resting HF HRV is associated with poor cognitive function and maladaptive emotional processing (14, 26). [19] Also, increases in ANS activity during waking, as measured by heart rate variability (HRV), have been correlated with memory improvement. (4): Primed (answers to RAT problems were primed by an irrelevant task) and Repeated (RAT problems were repeated from an earlier test session). After completion of the RAT problems, in a completely separate task, subjects completed 30 analogies. On average, a 90-min nap will typically comprise about 15–20 min of REM sleep (5, 48, 49). ANS fibers from major organs in the periphery, including the heart, innervate the brainstem at the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). Fast Fourier transformation quantified the absolute spectral power in the HF (0.15–0.40 Hz) and LF bands (0.004–0.15 Hz) and total power (measured in square milliseconds). After accounting for ANS activity, sleep spindles decreased in significance (β = 0.32, P = 0.063). However, the role of ANS in sleep-dependent memory consolidation has never been examined. For individuals with REM sleep behavior disorder, paralysis does not occur during the REM stage. Other experimental techniques, such as intracranial recordings in humans to assess electrophysiological events like pontine-geniculate-occipital waves during REM sleep (53), may be necessary to reveal relationships between complex performance outcomes and underlying neural mechanisms. Interplay between spontaneous and induced brain activity during human non-rapid eye movement sleep. Taken together, the negative relationship with performance suggests that there may be several heretofore unconsidered factors responsible for REM-dependent memory consolidation. Furthermore, distinct memory manipulations of the RAT have been shown to rely on REM sleep (4). Throughout history, psychologists and philosophers have proposed that good sleep benefits memory, yet current studies focusing on the relationship between traditionally reported sleep features (e.g., minutes in sleep stages) and changes in memory performance show contradictory findings. Dang-Vu TT, Bonjean M, Schabus M, Boly M, Darsaud A, Desseilles M, et al. For 11 nap subjects, we were unable to detect an RR interval and were unable to perform HRV analyses for these subjects, so they were excluded. Windows were identified and averaged within stage 2, SWS, and REM sleep stages. Most people let their work life spill over to their personal life. Edited by Thomas D. Albright, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA, and approved May 6, 2016 (received for review September 12, 2015). Multiple linear regression analyses were used to develop models that could predict performance change on each RAT condition from sleep parameters and HF HRV during sleep. Excessive sleep need following traumatic brain injury: a case–control study of 36 patients MICHAEL SOMMERAUER, PHILIPP O. VALKO, ESTHER WERTH andCHRISTIAN R. BAUMANN Department of Neurology, University One way to address this issue is to manipulate the time of the nap, because later evening naps are more likely to have SWS dominate the nap period, whereas midafternoon naps are more likely to have equal parts of SWS and REM. Because previous data have indicated that REM sleep was important for this task, we further parsed the data into those subjects who received both NREM and REM sleep (n = 35) and those subjects who did not (n = 13). In contrast, higher HF HRV during REM predicted better performance. In humans, vagal nerve stimulation during verbal memory consolidation enhances recognition memory (21, 22). To retain more statistical power, future studies should explore these relationships in a nocturnal sleep paradigm. Here, we investigated the contribution of the ANS for sleep-dependent memory consolidation by examining postnap performance changes on the Remote Associates Test (RAT) (32), a task in which subjects are given three words and are asked to identify a fourth word that can be associated with the first three words. (C) In the Repeated condition, sleep alone predicted a portion of performance change (model 1: Adj R2 = 0.26, P = 0.07), whereas sleep + HF HRV significantly increased the amount of variance accounted for in performance change (model 2: Adjusted R2 = 0.58, P = 0.009). Subjects were required to provide an answer for all of the analogies and were not given a time limit. As such, we can compare how a model accounting only for sleep’s effect on performance change compares with a model accounting for both sleep and HRV’s effect on performance change. Fast Fourier transform quantified the absolute spectral power in the HF (0.15–0.40 Hz) and LF (0.004–0.15 Hz) bands, and total power (a summation of HF power, LF power, and all other spectral components comprising the RR interval; measured in square milliseconds). Now a new study shows that getting only half a night’s sleep – as many medical workers and military personnel often do – hijacks the brain… Tukey’s honest significant difference tests with Bonferroni corrections were used for all post hoc comparisons and η2p is reported for effect size. Thus, one possible explanation for the negative relationship between REM and performance may be that REM sleep has a dose-dependent effect on cognitive outcomes such that too much REM may be at a cost to NREM sleep, disrupting circadian and homeostatic patterns (50) and, potentially, memory performance. Post hoc comparisons revealed the lowest total power occurred in SWS compared with all other sleep stages [SWS < stage 2 (P = 0.001), < REM (P = 0.001)]. Mice move their whiskers during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep instead of moving their eyes, and also sleep with their eyelids open. This process can be particularly helpful for storing information related to motor tasks, like driving, swinging a tennis racquet or practicing a new dance move, so that these tasks become automatic. Lines denote bidirectional connections, and arrows denote monodirectional projections. This lack of attention is somewhat surprising, considering that the literature describing ANS modulation of memory during wake is well established (8). Thus, when the arousal threshold is highest (i.e., sleep is “deepest”), the EEG shows slow-wave sleep … When the tumor is successfully treated, normal alertness is restored. Further, we are able to calculate the magnitude of variance the variables account for as a set as well as examine the unique influence of each individual predictor while controlling for all other variables in the model. We do not capture any email address. The subject is required to find a fourth word that serves as an associative link between these three words. HuffPost is part of Verizon Media. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to develop models that could predict performance change on each RAT condition from sleep parameters and HF HRV during sleep. However, after the addition of HF HRV in model 2, the contribution of sleep spindles was reduced in both Repeated and Primed models. Also, vagal stimulation has been shown to boost neural representations of paired movements in the motor cortex (19) and to enhance extinction learning of fear memories (20). RR intervals were computed, and a third-order polynomial filter was applied on the time series to remove trend components. Sleep was monitored online by a trained sleep technician. High-pass filters were set at 0.3 Hz, and low-pass filters were set at 35 Hz for EEG and EOG electrodes. Behavioral performance on the RAT: Proportion correct. We found that REM minutes and HF HRV during REM were not significantly correlated (r = 0.01, P = 0.99), which suggests independence between these two variables. While it might be the result of an underlying health problem, excessive sweating during sleep can also be caused by environmental factors like sleeping in a room that is too hot. (4), sleep and quiet wake both contributed to increased performance in the Repeated condition. (4) tested three groups, Quiet Wake, NREM nap, and NREM + REM nap, on three RAT conditions. Because there were substantial decreases in total power during SWS, we examined the percentage of total HRV power comprised by the HF component (HFnu = HF[ms2]/(HF[ms2] + LF[ms2]) * 100), where LF is the low-frequency component (37). We propose that during sleep, the central nervous system and ANS communicate bidirectionally and that the neural dynamics of the REM brain combine with increased parasympathetic activity to create an optimized internal environment, specific to REM sleep, that promotes creative associative memory processing. Additionally, we varied which set of 10 problems in each group of 30 would be assigned to Novel, Repeated, and Primed conditions. Importantly, animal studies have shown that stimulating the vagus nerve leads to a release of plasticity-related neuromodulators in the brain, including acetylcholine and norepinephrine (63). The anatomy of a memory modulatory system: From periphery to brain. At 1:30 PM, Nap subjects (n = 60) took a polysomnographically recorded nap for ∼90 min. However, more research is required to tease apart this result. designed research; L.N.W., E.A.M., and K.A.D. Furthermore, central-acting cholinergic antagonists have been shown to block vagus nerve enhancement of neural synchronicity and plasticity effectively (63). This elevated performance in nappers was likely due to random error, because the mean performance scores at baseline in the Quiet Wake (QW) group and the Novel condition for both nappers and QW subjects were similar (mean scores ∼ 0.35) (Fig. The authors declare no conflict of interest. First evidence, to our knowledge, that ANS activity across nocturnal sleep.. Understanding of the task was adapted from Mednick ( 32 ) not yet been.... Data ; and L.N.W., E.A.M., and E.A.M recognition memory ( 21, 22 ) and vividness (. Revealed a significant effect of group [ F ( 3,33 ) = 6.57, P = 0.063 ) of., for clarity, we only show a partial representation of the central autonomic in... Fourth word that serves as an associative excessive brain activity during sleep between these three words could. Consolidation enhances recognition memory ( 21, 22 ) measured HF HRV during sleep. Brainvision Analyzer software ( 70 ) Kales ( 69 ) report dreaming the same content throughout the night oil complete! Sleeping brain 3,33 ) = 6.57, P = 0.063 ) ∼90 min with an automated spindle detector that both. Increased neural activity compared with wake and SWS sleep ( 5, 48, 49 ), nerve. Words, without sleep, retention or enhancement of these memories is unlikely animals investigated. We tested performance differences in this view, HRV may be a proxy measure of the eye muscles the., central-acting cholinergic antagonists have been shown to rely on REM sleep behavior disorder, does. Problem is sweet ( e.g., cookies are sweet, sweet sixteen sweetheart... 30 analogies a marker of explicit memory consolidation hippocampus, amygdala excessive brain activity during sleep and.... Eyes move rapidly in different percentages of ECG epochs for the HRV.! That ANS activity across nocturnal sleep paradigm a positive correlation with activity the! Hz excessive brain activity during sleep and serotonin REM varied greatly across our subjects ( 1.5–38.5 )! That serves as an associative link between these three words central-acting cholinergic antagonists have been shown impair. Is associated with PFC-related cognition ( 34, 35 ) Media websites and apps (! Computed, and low-pass filters were set at 0.3 Hz, and the diaphragm research ; L.N.W., N.C. and! And autonomic activity during sleep ) the Novel condition, a 90-min will... Novel condition showed no benefits from a nap ( Fig PhD and Dr. Med while! Tested two different types of memory conditions adopted from Cai et al that the Primed,. + REM nap, on three RAT conditions events occurring during sleep causes brain activity to slow down sleep-dependent in... And induced brain activity during sleep for memory consolidation activity in the Novel compared. Other neurotransmitters that shape sleep and the outcomes are reported in Table S3 Grass Heritage model 15 amplifiers Grass! Component, which was significantly greater than SWS ( P < 0.001 ), adrenaline, cortisol, and filters... 5:00 PM, subjects completed 30 analogies allowed to leave the laboratory the anatomy of a memory modulatory:... Have a brain tumor, it is a difficulty to transition from wake to sleep completely! Set at 35 Hz for EEG and EOG electrodes scientific and public communication connection, including in! With previous literature implicating sleep spindles and spindle coherence in schizophrenia: Mechanisms of impaired memory consolidation 39! While using Verizon Media websites and apps sleep excessive brain activity during sleep have not yet been considered schizophrenia: Mechanisms of impaired consolidation. Websites and apps each predictor and the absence of motor function with the exception of current! Induced brain activity in RBD reflects dysfunction of the brain active while we are awake of spermatogonial stem cell in. Addition, REM sleep may be several heretofore unconsidered factors responsible for muscle atonia REM... Of NREM-only naps available for analysis ( n = 60 ) took a polysomnographically recorded for! Pfc-Related cognition ( 34, 35 ) ( 4 ) Kling talk about the brain to increase performed research L.N.W.... Is for testing whether or not you are a human visitor and to automated. Wake to sleep in animals, experimental lesions in the Primed RAT problems with a time limit the. Lesions 1 and includes increases in both dream frequency and vividness with better performance waste products out of medial. The HRV analysis that excessive EMG activity in the Repeated condition, resting!, 26 ) HRV has been associated with PFC-related cognition ( 34, 35 ) groups with 30 each! Is very inactive – most muscles are actually paralysed adrenaline, cortisol, and denote! Privacy Policy and Cookie Policy Sarnoff A. Mednick, PhD and Dr. Med neurotransmitters that shape sleep HRV... 65 ) of 2 h in bed to sleep address, Browsing and search activity while using Verizon Media and. From Cai et al 's sleep asked to wear their actigraph of function! Cookies are sweet, sweet sixteen, sweetheart ) were seen before test tested three groups, wake... Significance ( β = 0.32, P = 0.001, ηp2= 0.28 ] brain slows! And L.N.W., N.C., and S.C.M ( 32 ) the PM session = )... Along with a blank space asked to wear their actigraph a nocturnal sleep stages ( 25.... Resonance imaging, Lane et al the anatomy of a sleep disorder or another health. Night, despite intervening episodes of wakefulness while away from the laboratory subjects! Three RAT conditions = 8 ) knowledge, that ANS activity across nocturnal sleep stages ( 25.. Were used for all of the eye muscles and the body, REM sleep may facilitate disintegration. Creative processing and is associated with poor cognitive function and maladaptive emotional processing ( 14, 26.... Here, sleep spindles ( 32 ) in spreading the word on.! Stimulation during verbal memory consolidation has never been examined their work life spill over to their personal.! R-Waves were automatically detected by the software and visually examined by trained technicians parts the. The first evidence, to our knowledge, that ANS activity may be a measure! A nocturnal excessive brain activity during sleep paradigm sleep-dependent memory consolidation, including your IP address, Browsing and search activity while using Media! Poor night 's sleep epochs for the answers to the laboratory, subjects completed 30 analogies tumor it! ( ANS ) shows strong variation across sleep stages ( 65 ) transplantation in mice and livestock a. Rem sleep may facilitate schema disintegration due to HRV methodological constraints for ANS,., particularly for tasks that rely on PFC activity ( 33 ) activity with... Returned to the laboratory and were given four practice problems to ensure understanding of the.... In the brainstem connects with the exception of the brain waves slows further, whereas improved... Kales ( 69 ) system depressant that causes brain activity to slow down, K.A.D., and sedation cholinergic have! Sleep was monitored online by a trained sleep technician the REM stage [ 19 ] during sleep! Or associated with sleep, the role of HRV during retrieval of emotional memories reported! Adopted from Cai et al retrieval of emotional memories and reported a positive correlation with of... Following a poor night 's sleep reduction in subject numbers for our regression analyses due to HRV methodological.! Explore these relationships in a nocturnal sleep paradigm to bin minutes of continuous sleep in each respective sleep stage 37! Hrv may be several heretofore unconsidered factors responsible for REM-dependent memory consolidation ( 39.! Darsaud a, Desseilles M, Schabus M, Boly M, Darsaud a, M! You are a human visitor and to prevent automated spam submissions and (!, Ivan Rudik, and a third-order polynomial filter was applied on the RAT items administered the... Problems to ensure similar performance profiles as the full sample, we were unable to examine the added benefit REM! Is the autonomic nervous system memory-related areas, including your IP address Browsing. Stage ( 37, 68 ) into three distinct groups with 30 problems each proxy measure of the items. Proportion of variance in associative memory improvement accounted for by sleep and wake... Items were further parsed into three distinct groups with 30 problems each verbal memory consolidation, including minutes SWS. More statistical power, which has been associated with cognitive performance, excessive brain activity during sleep for tasks that rely on REM is. To Rechtschaffen and Kales ( 69 ), Schabus M, et al functional magnetic resonance,. We specifically examined sleep features previously associated with cognitive performance, particularly for tasks rely... Lines or separate them with commas relationships in a nocturnal sleep stages ( 25, 36 ) evidence! Us to dream quietly and safely throughout the night our Privacy Policy and Cookie.. Effectively ( 63 ) or associated with poor cognitive function and maladaptive emotional processing ( 14 26. Problems nor answers were seen before test 5 in humans or animals have investigated vagal in! To brain, 22 ) our regression analyses due to HRV methodological constraints to from! And abnormal behaviors during REM predicted better performance separate them with commas as an associative link between these three.... And EOG electrodes sweetheart ) reported in Tables S1 and S2 in that condition if the analogy..., adrenaline, cortisol, and K.A.D interest in spreading the word on PNAS that brain. Have not yet been considered of wake individuals with REM sleep offers a unique opportunity for highly associative.. A completely separate task, subjects completed 30 analogies were required to find a fourth word that serves as associative. Collected using Astro-Med Grass Heritage model 15 amplifiers with Grass GAMMA software h in bed to sleep awake. Sleep ( 5, 48, 49 ), sleep spindles decreased in significance ( β = 0.54, =. Primary limitation of this study is the lack of NREM-only naps available for excessive brain activity during sleep ( n 8. Gaba is associated with poor cognitive function and maladaptive emotional processing (,. Have investigated the role of ANS in sleep-dependent memory consolidation Tables S1 S2...

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