0000006420 00000 n The use of natural resource-based livelihood sources to increase income and reduce poverty has a … financial) and indirect (e.g. Thus, rural households engage in to different livelihood diversification activities to ensure their food needs and secure their future livelihoods. . 0000005880 00000 n In the study, limiting factors and ... of livelihood diversification on household food security . 0000007354 00000 n 0000013590 00000 n For example, it is fairly well known that the poor diversify in less advantageous labour markets than the better-off, i.e. this „resilience‟ to stress and shocks is the diversification of elements that comprise „livelihood‟. 472. 0000002519 00000 n 0000005574 00000 n 0000004412 00000 n Planning Promotion Trust and Assitant Professor ( Livelihood and Microfinance Management) with HDF School of Management . livelihood. �����rê��cX>\^p������r}y�yQ���ˋd�m���o&W�3���>�����.`r3M���UU�����a���mN�`�˻������r~{�&��J�:��2WR^V����ߓ9�����s:J�7� %���� 0000004259 00000 n In this paper, we have assessed the role of livelihood diversification in household well-being in Humla, a remote mountain district in west Nepal. 0000007895 00000 n the process by which rural households construct an increasingly diverse portfolio of activities and assets in order to survive and to improve their standards of living’’ (p. 15). Several livelihood diversification strategies used by the respondents which include; artisan, hunting and gathering, paid labour, trading and hawking; which could be categorized into two, better explained as off-farm and non-farm income-generating activities. Just prior to publication of the White Paper Carney (1998) provides a simpler vision but also one which has resonance with that of Chambers and Conway: “A livelihood comprises the capabilities, assets (including both material and trailer . Livelihood Diversification: A Streatagy for Rural Income Enhancement. (2019) also conducted a study on the impact of income diversification on rural livelihood in some selected areas of Bangladesh. livelihood diversification and the welfare implications of such decisions by agricultural households, this study examines and evaluates the importance of some selected proxies of the reforms in Ghana. Livelihood sentence examples. Livelihood diversification is a process by which rural households construct a diverse portfolio of activities and social support capabilities in their struggle for survival and improvement in their standards of living [] and the means of gaining a living [].It can be defined as the maintenance and continuous alteration of highly varied range of activities and occupations … >> 0000013225 00000 n 0000005344 00000 n The literature on the "homogenisation" of livestock and crop production systems in semi-arid Africa provides one of the best examples of how what is livelihood diversification for some, is primary production for others. Livelihood diversification is defined as the process by which rural families construct a diverse portfolio of activities and social support capabilities in order to survive and to improve their standards of living. Journal of African Economies 20(5) 781–822. Bigsten A, Tengstam S (2011) Smallholder diversification and income growth in Zambia. 0000006499 00000 n 0000013379 00000 n He went to Brussels, where for nearly thirty years he earned a scanty livelihood by his writings. 0000024318 00000 n 0000020001 00000 n Introduction. This research was therefore proposed with the aim of generating location specific data on livelihood strategies and its determinants in Borena … 5. livelihood activities like the sale of charcoal and firewood, fruits petty trade, labor exchange, migration, and etc to generate some income in addition to agriculture to fight mainly the food insecurity, but without detail awareness of its wider contribution in poverty reduction [1]. • Livelihood diversification is but one means of managing the range of risks poor and near poor households face, including those associated with agriculture-based livelihoods. 0000004184 00000 n Livelihoods diversification was influenced by factors like markets, climate, population, land shortages, institutions, policies, and livelihoods assets. Hurungwe District . 0000006033 00000 n 0000003564 00000 n H�tV�s�6~�L��}���>�`�)�w��&p��7} �:��Hrs�ﻻ�c�1������o׾Z^^�{������ As agricultural specialization can start from an initial diversification move, also livelihoods diversification can eventually lead to some form of household specialization. On-farm diversification means “maintenance of a diverse spread of crop and livestock production acitivites that interlock with each other in various way.” (Ellis, 2000) A conventional example is a mixed cropping or intercropping, which refers to growing two or more crops on the same piece of land to “take advantages of complementarities between crops in their use of soil nutrients, … 0000006109 00000 n It is proposed that rural people construct their livelihoods via three main strategies: agricultural intensification; livelihood diversification; and migration. 0000003410 00000 n 0000006186 00000 n Strategies may include subsistence production or production for th… in casual, part-time and unskilled work compared to full-time work or substantive self-employment. 0000004108 00000 n w��(�æ1��.����T:EI�c��`�1�'�Q�r�R�O�9q�8 �YY���$S�8��^�ϐ�%�Z��ϥ�. stream ... livelihood diversification … Even within a small area, households can pursue heterogeneous livelihood diversification strategies. Diversification of livelihoods is essential in Namibia because of the semi-arid to arid conditions in which the highest rainfall areas are marginal for rain-fed crop production and drought is a common occurrence. 0000002545 00000 n 0000012899 00000 n 103 69 Livelihoods diversification is the approach of having more than one income stream across on-farm, off- 0000004722 00000 n x�b```f``�f`c``�ba@ �;�F�0�Y��*�=��}�bxDŷ]���Pd�˰� �+�>��m�700. 0 0000003875 00000 n 0000003254 00000 n Primary data were collected from 220 respondents using structured questionnaire. 0000005727 00000 n 0000004031 00000 n 0000003332 00000 n 0000003953 00000 n An in-depth analysis of charcoal producers' livelihoods presented in this study has revealed clear direct (e.g. Diversification refers to those individual, household, and community level strategies and objectives that are pursued alongside, or in lieu of, traditional agricultural activities to diversify income streams and reduce risk. 0000005650 00000 n 0000005032 00000 n Livelihood diversification has received much attention from researchers and policy-makers in the past decades, with high hopes that promoting it can offer a pathway for poverty reduction and economic growth in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) (World Bank, 2007).The term ‘diversification’ refers to processes taking place at different levels of the economy, which are … 0000000016 00000 n 1 Assistant Professor and Head of Department, Department of Rural Development, Amir Muhammad Khan Campus, Mardan, The University of Agriculture-Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa-Pakistan. The statistical tools used to analyse the data were descriptive statistics, logit regression and t-statistics. Similarly, improvement in infrastructure can stimulate economic activities and hence income. 0000002787 00000 n However, identification of the factors that determine households’ choice of livelihood strategies of pastoralists has received little attention. 0000005420 00000 n A full list of livelihood activities is in Supplementary Table 2. 0000005497 00000 n 0000002866 00000 n The study investigated the role of livelihood diversification strategies for rural household food security in Kembata Tembaro Zone, Southern Ethiopia with … 0000028489 00000 n livelihood activities to weather variability provides a prominent example. study was undertaken in Hurungwe district, it draws comparative examples from other countries in the sub-Saharan context in bid to ensure balanced understanding and analysis of the subject. /Filter /FlateDecode Their rule was that they had to earn their livelihood, and must not beg. Discussion 0000005110 00000 n Agriculture in developing countries is unable to meet food needs of rural people. Mr. Rao has strong knowledge and grassroots level experience in livelihood promotion, capacity building, networking, program planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation. 0000004567 00000 n ‘‘Livelihood diversification’’, he elaborates, is ‘‘. women’s livelihood for a sustainable economic development in Tambacounda and Koussanar in the Eastern region of Senegal” has been awarded fund from the GASFP’s MMI. 0000006262 00000 n Furthermore, fisheries and tourism are the %PDF-1.3 %���� 0000002945 00000 n 171 0 obj<>stream 0000003023 00000 n Livelihood diversification strategies play a key role in development process. 0000006341 00000 n The determinants and effects of diversification in the areas of poverty, income distribution, farm output and gender are examined. We define livelihood diversification strategies as startxref <<9605B818CAABB540814CD401738C13FE>]>> Muhammad Israr 1,, Humayun Khan 2, Dawood Jan 3, Nafees Ahmad 4. 117. This can be possible through provision of credit services on easy terms. 0000003798 00000 n Thisstudy focused on analyse of livelihood diversification by farming households in Kachia, Kagarko and Jaba Local Government areas of Kaduna State, Nigeria. 0000003720 00000 n In total 408 livelihood activities were undertaken, of which 245 (60%) involved farming. livelihood alternatives and level of entry barriers [7]. 0000012539 00000 n With respect to ecosystem-based livelihoods, there is more household participation in fishing and seaweed farming, but it varies from village to village. 0000004490 00000 n This reading provides an example of analysis of diversification among primarily rural households in Zambia. Findings … DOI: 10.1002/JID.1419 Corpus ID: 54075370. ��4T�X :�?�pb���t�|:E5�W�)����Fn�����ltf~��^��2ao��E�2�+�Y�c��vm���8t����!�[ yj�s��e�v�Dc��yF]yͅ>�V���n��(�C�oV���[J���R1D� �hߨ ���]�D�� 9Ҍ�;D�^�Q���_b�e����n�C@۰lboF��ep���)1� Following the 2007 ... example, access to land, education, finance, etc), (ii) 0000004336 00000 n 0000002599 00000 n Livelihood literature (Hussein and Nelson 1999; Ellis 2000) suggests that though exogenous trends and shocks play an important role in pushing rural people towards a diversified livelihood strategy, diversification choices are also firmly rooted in the micro-economic logic of … 0000008009 00000 n A further 48 were listed as labor or piecework, which is likely to be farm based. Examples of businesses include selling produce such as tomatoes, mandazi (a dough bun), and fish. 0000004645 00000 n %%EOF Livelihoods Diversification Analysis: Final Report 3 The livelihoods of FGD participants spanned nearly 70 different types of activities/occupations, including agriculture, embouche (livestock fattening), auto and motorbike mechanics, electricians, small traders, �q�����*4(��LDGd�G-c���Y1��W���M�� =Gko@��7�*NT61�P"��������g�Yסf�^lge��X/A�w�̾ %��6��)�z�=�0� Researchers have shown that in the Sahel, crop producers are increasingly keeping livestock and herders increasingly engage 6 0000001676 00000 n 0000002392 00000 n It is relevant to discussion of livelihoods diversification in Section 2. For rural people, agriculture and other natural resource-based activities may play an important role, but rural households also diversify into other activities, some of which are linked to agriculture and the natural resources sector, others which are not. Some may depend virtually solely on crops (often only maize and beans), or mostly on livestock, while others grow crops, have goats and a dairy cow, plus grow fruit and have some off-farm income. 0000004877 00000 n 0000004800 00000 n Livelihood diversification strategies, incomes and soil management strategies: a case study from Kerio Valley, Kenya @article{Iiyama2008LivelihoodDS, title={Livelihood diversification strategies, incomes and soil management strategies: a case study from Kerio Valley, Kenya}, author={M. Iiyama and Patrick … Diversification of livelihoods is a commonly applied strategy for coping with economic and environmental shocks and instrumental in poverty reduction. %PDF-1.2 /Length 1165 0000005188 00000 n 0000005956 00000 n Salam et al. 0000003642 00000 n 0000005266 00000 n 0000003100 00000 n _S!�IZ&���Y?��z�������\@6��C!w�)�2:���"��¦u��"yHE����9E;-�v�̮��t��^�LBq�We5�G�RpH�q���ߗ4��L��.޽�"e��Ge��E>��f��@C.F��z�f�d���J}/���ڴ�k�y�@�ުFc6cLB��R�O�t~�y0[�;��I��E��ڍڀUNI�ޡ����V�9_R��9/��Q!�����Y.������ ��1+�[�ki�ƈV����Y�)N��+\4f ���hJK�f�y��Ws4�>D��;r��o�A!��҇��?G�G��~UǼ8�Ѵ�P���4E$����"��Ϡ�~� մ6M#W�J���Gt��`^ٖ��y�dk,��)�q\�f(^�>yD 69. 1. The results show that livelihood diversification is very high in coastal households in Zanzibar. 0000011359 00000 n 0000003177 00000 n 103 0 obj <> endobj The livelihood strategies and activities of poor people are often complex and diverse. 0000011849 00000 n Diversifying livelihood activities may a ect the environment and the natural resource base [8–10]. 2 0 obj << 0000006618 00000 n 121. For instance, in particular circumstance migratory wage labor may result so cost/effective to push the household away from conventional on-farm activities. 0000004955 00000 n 0000005803 00000 n You do not need 0000003487 00000 n Therefore, livelihood improvement in the area is possible through diversifying activities of the rural poor from farming to off-farm and non-farming activities. xref However, although it is apparent livelihood diversification This paper explores the second of these strategies using evidence from Asia and Africa. 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